Guar or guar gum, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba is a species of plant belonging to the family Fabaceae.
The guar plant, known worldwide for the derivative that takes place from their seeds, guar gum. it is native to the continent Asia, mainly of the Pakistan and India and which by its medical usefulness cultivated in North America and texas Guar.Guar has also been used in the human diet for hundreds of years.
The term Cyamopsis means “pink water lily” and tetragonoloba tells us that it is constituted by four lobes. The molecule of guar is a linear polymer with an approximate molecular weight of 220,000 Dalton. The guar gum, is a product widely used in the world, because it has features thickeners, so it is added to many products, such as the jellies, yogurt, etc.The goma guar is a polysaccharide that is soluble in water which is used mainly in the food industry, in juices, ice cream, sauces, pet food. The flour from grain of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba is used as a thickener agent.You can get best guar yield if you follow the guide lines.
From Guar plant’s (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) endosperm of Guar Gum is derivative . Guar gum is a legume (a plant of pea family) crop grows best in sandy soils and needs moderate, flashing rainfall with lots of sunshine. Guar gum is found in the seeds of two annual leguminous plants (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus and psoralioides).
Guar gum is useful as a haircuticle agent for water and as a reagent for adsorption and hydrogen bonding with mineral and cellulosic surfaces. It is an edible carbohydrate polymer.
Botanical features of the guar plan:
The main botanical features of the guar plant are:
- The guar is a plant species, which usually measure between 65 and 90 centimeters tall. This species develops throughout their life cycle in the course of a year.
- Guar leaves are alternate and have petioles. Each leaf consists of 3 leaflets (small leaves), which are lanceolate shaped and measure about 5 inches lengthwise.
- Guar flowers arise from axillary clusters and are grouped in inflorescences, each of them contains between 5 and 25 flowers.They are cyclic, i.e. present homologous pieces to the same levels of the axis, each level being a whorl.
- The fruit of guar is a pod of about 7 centimeters in length. This sheath has in its interior between 3 and 6 seeds, which are used in the manufacture of rubber guar.
- Guar Plant has a root fasciculate, i.e. that its secondary roots grow so much or more than the main.
- Guar seeds plant is erect, because it develops air and grows vertically.
- The leaves are alternate and consist of three leaflets (Trifoliate).
- These leaflets are elliptic, 3.8 to 7.5 cm in length and 1, 2 to 5 cm thick.
- The two sides of the guar leaves do not have no apparent morphological difference, both are toothed and pubescent.
- The petiole, which is the foot that supports the blade, measuring 2.5 to 3.8 cm long. Its texture is thin, green and soft (herbaceous).
- The perianth consists of two parts: the calyx and the Corolla, which is violet and slightly longer. The calyx, which is composed of 5 sepals fused and furry, is gamosèpalo.
- The corolla, which is dialectal zygomorphic , consists of a banner, two wings and a crest consisting two fused petals, the petals are small and reddish.
- The androecium, the third of the floral whorls, consists of ten stamens.
- The gynoecium, the innermost of the floral whorls, is monocarpelar. The inflorescence is racemose. The result is simple and dehiscents, is a legume of 3.5 – 8 cm long, with some hairs distributed across the surface. Inside are 5-6 seeds, with a well-developed endosperm. It will be the seed, known as goma guar, which will be used pharmacological.
- Cyamopsis psoralioides (Lam.)DC
- Cyamopsis psoraloides (Lam.) DC
- Cyanopsis tetragonoloba (L)Taub
- Dolichos fabaeformis L’ Hér
- Dolichos fabiformis L’ Hér
- Dolichos psoraloides Lam
- Lopinus trifoliolatus CAV
- Lupinus trefoil CAV
- Psoralea tetragonoloba